Vim

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VIM

VIM = Vi IMproved

"Vim is an editor designed to work like that most venerable of UNIX editors, vi. Vim doesn't just clone vi; it extends vi with features like multi-level undo, a graphical interface (if you want it), windows, block operations, on-line help and syntax coloring.

When you first start using Vim, it will be 100% compatible with vi. You won't notice any of Vim's fancy features until you activate them.

Luckily, it's easy to convince Vim that we know we're actually in Vim and not in vi. Vim customizations are stored in a file called .vimrc in your home directory. If Vim sees that you have a .vimrc file—even if that file is empty—Vim will turn off vi-compatibility mode, which will configure Vim as Vim, rather than vi." [1]


vimrc

/etc/vimrc (or ~/.vimrc):

set nocompatible         " Use Vim defaults (much better!)
set bs=indent,eol,start  " allow backspacing over everything in insert mode
set ruler                " show the cursor position all the time
syntax on                " syntax highlighting
set backspace=2
set nocp
set bs=2

Comments are preceeded with " to end of line (unless second " found)

" this is a comment

Save settings to file:

:mkvimrc [file]

Use <vimrc> instead of any .vimrc

vim -u <vimrc>
vim -u /dev/null

CentOS 5 default settings:

version 6.0
if &cp | set nocp | endif
let s:cpo_save=&cpo
set cpo&vim
nmap gx <Plug>NetrwBrowseX
nnoremap <silent> <Plug>NetrwBrowseX :call netrw#NetrwBrowseX(expand("<cWORD>"),0)
let &cpo=s:cpo_save
unlet s:cpo_save
set background=dark
set backspace=indent,eol,start
set fileencodings=utf-8,latin1
set helplang=en
set history=50
set hlsearch
set nomodeline
set ruler
set viminfo='20,\"50
" vim: set ft=vim :

Python .vimrc

" Kenneth's Preferences

set nobackup            " don't create backup files
"set nohlsearch          " don't highlight search results
set hlsearch            " do highlight search results
set incsearch           " incremental search
set ignorecase          " ignore case during search
set smartcase           " do case sensitive search when upper case is typed
set shiftwidth=4        " shift blocks in 4 space increments
set tabstop=4           " the (typewriter) tab stops are every 4 spaces
set smarttab            " tab at beginning of line inserts 4 spaces (shiftwidth)
set showmatch           " briefly highlight matching bracket
set matchtime=1         " highlight match for 0.1 seconds
set background=dark     " black background
set shiftwidth=4        " shift blocks by 4 spaces
set shortmess=at        " use short messages so we don't have to hit enter
set expandtab           " expand tabs into spaces
set scrolloff=5         " always show 5 lines before & after cursor
set shell=bash          " use bash for the command shell
set shellcmdflag=-lc    " make bash startup as a login shell for ~/.bashrc
"set nowrap              " do not wrap long lines
set visualbell          " flash the screen rather than beep
set noerrorbells        " don't beep on errors
set wildmenu            " enable filename tab completion
set ruler               " display the ruler: shows cursor position
set cpoptions+=$        " display '$' at end of cw sequence
set title               " display filename and vim info in window title bar
set modelines=5         " search the first and last 5 lines for "vim:" modeline
set backspace=2         " backspace deletes

set wildignore=*.o,*.class,*.pyc,*.pyo,*.a,*.so,*.dll,*.exe,core,*.jar,*.zip

"let loaded_matchparen = 1 " don't highlight parenthesis match

filetype indent on

"if v:version > 700
"    set cursorline          " underline the current line
"endif

if &t_Co > 2 || has( "gui_running" )
    syntax on
endif

if has( 'mouse' )
    set mouse=a " enable mouse
endif

if has( "autocmd" )
    " open the file in the last place we were editing
    autocmd BufReadPost *
        \ if line("'\"") > 1 && line("'\"") <= line("$") |
        \     exe "normal! g'\"" |
        \ endif
endif

"folding settings
set foldmethod=indent   "fold based on indent
set foldnestmax=10      "deepest fold is 10 levels
set nofoldenable        "dont fold by default
set foldlevel=10        "this is just what i use

" Auto clear trailing white space in Python files
func! DeleteTrailingWS()
    exec "normal mz"
    %s/\s\+$//ge
    exe "normal `z"
endfunc
autocmd BufWrite *.py :call DeleteTrailingWS()

Compatability

-N
"No-compatible mode. Reset the ’compatible’ option. This will make Vim behave a bit better, but less Vi compatible, even though a .vimrc file does not exist."

Basic Vi Keys

Movement:

0	Start of current line
$	End of current line

[home]	Start of current line
[end]	End of current line

^	Move the cursor to the first non-whitespace character. 
+	Move the cursor to the first non-whitespace character in the next line.
-	Move the cursor to the first non-whitespace character in the previous line.
_	Move the cursor to the first non-whitespace character. 
g _	End of current line (last non white space character)

%	Move the cursor to the matching parenthesis or brace. 

Ctrl-F	Forward one screen
Ctrl-B	Back one screen

Search:

/text	Search for text (forwards)
/	Repeat forward search
?text	Search for text (backwards)
?	Repeat previous search backwards
n	Repeat previous search
N	Repeat previous search, but it opposite direction

Line Number Movement:

Ctrl-G	Display line number of cursor
nG	Move cursor to line number n
:n	Move cursor to line number n
G	Move to last line in file

Insert:

A	Append to end of current line
I	Insert at beginning of line
o	Open line above cursor
O	Open line below cursor
ESC	End of insert mode

Ctrl-U	Delete current line
dd	Delete current line
ndd	Delete n lines
J	Join two lines
d^	Delete to beginning of line
d$	Delete to end of line

p	Insert buffer after cursor
P	Insert buffer before cursor

u	Undo last change
Ctrl-r	Redo last change

x	Delete current cursor position
X	Delete back one character
nX	Delete previous n characters

~	Toggle upper/lower case

y	Copy current line to new buffer
yy	Copy current line
"xyy	Copy current line into buffer x
"Xd	Delete and append into buffer x
"xp	Put contents of buffer x
:e [file]	open file, with tab completion
:w [file]	write to file, with tab completion
:enew		close file, keep vim open

Source: Unix Manuals - vi Reference


References:

Block Select

V       - selects entire lines 
v       - selects range of text
ctrl-v  - selects columns
d       - delete selection
y       - copy selection
p       - paste selection

Mark Text

m[letter]  - start selection  (eg. 'ma')
d'[letter] - copy selection lines
y'[letter] - copy selection lines
d`[letter] - copy selection text
y`[letter] - copy selection text
p          - paste selection

Tutorials


Status

:args	display the argument list
:file	display file name
^L ^G	redraw screen, show filename and position
g^G	show cursor column, line, and character position
ga	show ASCII value of character under cursor
gf	open file which filename is under cursor

Searching

Search:

Search STRING forward :   / STRING.
Search STRING backward:   ? STRING.
Repeat search:   n
Repeat search in opposite direction:  N  (SHIFT-n)

Reference: Vi: Search and Replace

To search for text (with regular expression):

/text
/[a-z]as

To clear highlighted search results: [2]

1) /somenonexistingtext
2) :noh
3) add "nmap <SPACE> <SPACE>:noh<CR>" to .vimrc, which will clear on space bar

Reference: Vi: Search and Replace

Replacing

:s/OLD/NEW		First occurrence on current line:          
:s/OLD/NEW/g		Globally (all) on current line:             
:1,15s/OLD/NEW/g	Between two lines 1,15:                     
:%s/OLD/NEW/g		Every occurrence in file:                  
:%s/OLD/NEW/g		Every occurrence in file:                  
:%s/OLD/NEW/gc		Every occurrence in file w/ conf:
:%s/OLD/NEW/gci	Every occurrence w/ conf case insensitve:  
:.,$s/OLD/NEW/g	Start from the current line (.) to the last line ($) inclusive. 

Reference: Vi: Search and Replace

Ranged replace:

:32,56s/guy/gal/g

Global replace:

:%s/search_string/replacement_string/g

Replace upper case to lower case:

:%s/[A-Z]/\L&/g
:%s/.*/\L&/

Replace lower case to upper case:

:%s/[a-z]/\U&/g
:%s/.*/\U&/

Reference: Vi: Search and Replace

External

shows your current working directory.

:!pwd

reads the results from the date command into a new line following the cursor.

:r !date

Auto Indent

set cindent
set cindent
set smartindent
set autoindent
set expandtab
set tabstop=2
set shiftwidth=2
set cinkeys=0{,0},:,0#,!,!^F

References:

Insert Literal Tab

You can use "[ctrl]+v [tab]" to insert a literal tab when "expandtab" is enabled.

<CTRL-V><Tab>

Source: How to insert Tab character when expandtab option is ON in VIM - Stack Overflow http://stackoverflow.com/questions/4781070/how-to-insert-tab-character-when-expandtab-option-is-on-in-vim

Disable Auto Indent

To turn off autoindent when you paste code, there's a special "paste" mode.

:set paste

Then paste your code. Note that the text in the tooltip now says -- INSERT (paste) --.

After you pasted your code, turn off the paste-mode, so that auto-indenting when you type works correctly again.

:set nopaste

To disable file based indenting for the current session:

:setlocal indentexpr=
:setl inde=

More extreme version:

:setl noai nocin nosi inde=

References:

Highlight Parenthesis

Use % to jump between matching parenthesis.

The :showmatch option is also useful: it can reduce the need for %, the cursor will briefly jump to the matching brace when you insert one.

Parenthesis highlighting is handled by the pi_paren module.

Vim documentation: pi_paren - http://vimdoc.sourceforge.net/htmldoc/pi_paren.html

To permanently disable this plugin, add the following to ~/.vimrc (not sure why you would want to):

You can avoid loading this plugin by setting the "loaded_matchparen" variable:
	:let loaded_matchparen = 1

To disable the plugin after it was loaded use this command: :NoMatchParen

And to enable it again: :DoMatchParen

"There's a plugin to do the highlighting thing. Sorry, it's been awhile since I used vim and was thinking showmatch highlighted also. [3]

  •  :help showmatch
  • There's a link in the help files to pi_paren.txt
  • pi_paren.txt. Put your cursor on that and hit ctrl-] and it'll jump you to the docs.
  • or directly with :help pi_paren.txt

References:

Vim Tip Wiki

http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/Vim_Tips_Wiki

Super Star Search

This tip shows how to search using Vim, including use of * (the super star) to search for the current word.

http://vim.wikia.com/wiki/VimTip1

In normal mode, move the cursor to any word. Press * to search forwards for the next occurrence of that word, or press # to search backwards.

Using * or # searches for the exact word at the cursor (searching for rain would not find rainbow).

Use g* or g# if you don't want to search for the exact word.

Multi-line Edits

Insert 20 lines of the following:

20iHello world! <Enter> <escape>

Multi-line insert (with VIM only):

  1. Enter visual block mode: ctrl-v
  2. Select rows with arrow keys
  3. press 'I' to insert text
    • can press 'c' to cut the text, and then do insert
  4. Type text to insert
  5. Press escape to insert on multi lines

Ruler not showing

If you don't want to see the ruler all the time but want to know where you are, use "CTRL-G" or "g CTRL-G".

Vim: Ruler

To turn the ruler on/off:

:set ruler
:ser noruler

CentOS by default only includes the package vim-minimal. This was not compiled with "+cmdline_info".

The solution is to do a "yum install vim-enhanced" and use "vim" instead of "vi", or use "alias vi=/usr/bin/vim"

To see what 'vi' was compiled with: [4]

:version

Vim Settings - Tips

Some very useful commands I use to make working with vim much more elegant and easier:

show / hide line numbers

:set number
:set nonumber
:set numberwidth=1

enable / disable syntax highlighting

:syntax on
:syntax off

If vim does not recognize the filetype, set the filetype manually

:set filetype=filetype

example

:set filetype=php

show ruler (cursor coordinates)

:set ruler

show vim mode (INSERT / REPLACE / ...)

:set showmode

show matching parentheses

:set showmatch

replace tabs with spaces

:set expandtab

number of spaces per tab

:set shiftwidth=2

As expandtab is not always desired (e.g. for Makefiles tabs are necessary and would lead to a syntax error when replaced by spaces) you can use autocmd to set it only for certain filetypes. Example

:filetype on
:autocmd FileType php :set expandtab

automatic indentation (e.g. code blocks between braces)

:set cindent

Use this option with caution (same as with expandtab)

case insensitive search

:set ignorecase

show invisible characters

:set list

Line Numbers

Show line numbers:

:set number
:set nu

Hide line numbers:

:set number!
:set nu!
:set nonumber

Line number width:

:set numberwidth=1

Auto enabled numbers - append following line to your ~/.vimrc file:

set number

Jump to line number:

[number(s)] [shift]+[G]
300[shift]+[G]

Jump to line number from command line:

vi +[linenumber] [file]
vi +300 myfile.txt

References:

Line Wrap

Turn line wrapping on:

:set wrap

Turn line wrapping off:

:set nowrap

Searching

Find pattern

/[pattern]

Incremental search:

:set incsearch

Incremental searching means that as you enter your search pattern, Vim will show you the next match as you type each letter.

Ignore case:

:set ignorecase

Smart case search:

:set smartcase

What if I really do want to search based on case distinctions? Will I have to set and unset ignorecase each time I want to search a different way? In vi, the answer, unfortunately, is yes. Vim is a little more subtle, though, in that it offers the smartcase option as well. If both ignorecase and smartcase are set, Vim will ignore the case of the search only if the search pattern is all in lower-case. But if there are any upper-case characters in the search pattern, Vim will assume you really want to do a case-sensitive search and will do its matching accordingly.

Keep Some Context: scrolloff

:set scrolloff=2

The 2 means I want at least two lines of context visible around the cursor at all times. You can set this to any number you like. Vim will scroll your file so that your cursor will never be closer to the top and bottom edge of the screen than the number of lines you specify.

Colors

Colors:

:colors darkblue

For colors, add colors=darkblue to your .vimrc and that's it.

Save Settings

Save settings to .virmc:

:mkv[imrc][!] [file]
:mkv

Like ":mkexrc", but the default is ".vimrc" in the current directory. The ":version" command is also written to the file. {not in Vi} (Vim documentation: starting)

Spell Check

The spell check includes misspelled word highlighting.

Turn on spell check:

:set spell
:set nospell
:setlocal spell spelllang=en_us

Navigation:

]s — move to the next mispelled word
[s — move to the previous mispelled word
zg — add a word to the dictionary
zug — undo the addition of a word to the dictionary
z= — view spelling suggestions for a mispelled word

In Insert mode:

CTRL-X s - find suggestions (can use up/down, top item is original)
CTRL-N - next suggestion
CTRL-P - previous suggestion (select top to revert to original)

Help:

:help spell

Code Folding

Settings in .vimrc:

"folding settings
set foldmethod=indent   "fold based on indent
set foldnestmax=10      "deepest fold is 10 levels
set nofoldenable        "dont fold by default
set foldlevel=10        "initial fold level on enable
za - toggle folding

zM - fold everything
zR - unfold everything with zR

zm - fold one level
zr - unfold one level

zo - open fold
zO - open all folds in current fold
zc - close fold

zf5j - manually force fold '5' lines
zfa} - manually fold to next '}'

help :folding - if you get stuck.

References:

Hex Mode

Vim provides hex capability through the external program xxd

:%!xxd       # to convert to hex
:%!xxd -r    # to convert back

Add the following to ~/.vimrc to enable CTRL-H hex mode (make sure to return from Hex mode before saving):


"
" HEX MODE
"
nnoremap <C-H> :Hexmode<CR>
inoremap <C-H> <Esc>:Hexmode<CR>
vnoremap <C-H> :<C-U>Hexmode<CR>

" ex command for toggling hex mode - define mapping if desired
command -bar Hexmode call ToggleHex()

" helper function to toggle hex mode
function ToggleHex()
  " hex mode should be considered a read-only operation
  " save values for modified and read-only for restoration later,
  " and clear the read-only flag for now
  let l:modified=&mod
  let l:oldreadonly=&readonly
  let &readonly=0
  let l:oldmodifiable=&modifiable
  let &modifiable=1
  if !exists("b:editHex") || !b:editHex
    " save old options
    let b:oldft=&ft
    let b:oldbin=&bin
    " set new options
    setlocal binary " make sure it overrides any textwidth, etc.
    let &ft="xxd"
    " set status
    let b:editHex=1
    " switch to hex editor
    %!xxd
  else
    " restore old options
    let &ft=b:oldft
    if !b:oldbin
      setlocal nobinary
    endif
    " set status
    let b:editHex=0
    " return to normal editing
    %!xxd -r
  endif
  " restore values for modified and read only state
  let &mod=l:modified
  let &readonly=l:oldreadonly
  let &modifiable=l:oldmodifiable
endfunction

References:

Multiple Buffers - Windows

keywords: multiple buffers / multiple windows

Documentation: http://vimdoc.sourceforge.net/htmldoc/windows.html

Command mode:

# To create/open a file in a horizontal buffer below:
:new filename.txt
:sp filename.txt
# To create/open a file in a vertical buffer on the right:
:vert new filename.txt
:vnew filename.txt
:vsp filename.txt
:vs filename.txt
# split current buffer horizontal
:sp
# split current buffer vertifical
:vsp
:vs

Open multiple files split horizontally:

vim -o file1.txt file2.txt file3.txt

Open multiple files split vertically:

vim -O file1.txt file2.txt file3.txt

Visual Mode Keys:

ctrl+w ctrl+w - switch windows
ctrl+w [right] - switch to right windows
ctrl+w [left] - switch to left windows
2 ctrl+g - identify buffer and file
ctrl+w n - new buffer horizontal split (no similar vert command)
ctrl+w s - open current buffer in second horizontal split
ctrl+w v - open current buffer in second buffer vertical split
ctrl+w q - close buffer

Note: to exit, you have to close out all windows, one at a time, or use: [5]

:wa  # write changes to all buffers
:xa  # save and exit all buffers
:qa  # quit all buffers
:qa! # quit all buffers (without saving)

swarthmore tricks: [6]

:e filename      - edit another file
:split filename  - split window and load another file
ctrl-w up arrow  - move cursor up a window
ctrl-w ctrl-w    - move cursor to another window (cycle)
ctrl-w_          - maximize current window
ctrl-w=          - make all equal size
10 ctrl-w+       - increase window height size by 10 lines
ctrl-w <         - shrink vertical window width by 1
ctrl-w >         - expand vertical window width by 1
20ctrl-w <         - shrink vertical window width by 20
20ctrl-w >         - expand vertical window width by 20
:vsplit file     - vertical split
:sview file      - same as split, but readonly
:hide            - close current window
:only            - keep only this window open
:ls              - show current buffers
:b 2             - open buffer #2 in this window

References:

Python

New as of 2013.05.15:

" Kenneth's Preferences

set nobackup            " don't create backup files
"set nohlsearch          " don't highlight search results
set hlsearch            " do highlight search results
set incsearch           " incremental search
set ignorecase          " ignore case during search
set smartcase           " do case sensitive search when upper case is typed
set shiftwidth=4        " shift blocks in 4 space increments
set tabstop=4           " the (typewriter) tab stops are every 4 spaces
set smarttab            " tab at beginning of line inserts 4 spaces (shiftwidth)
set showmatch           " briefly highlight matching bracket
set matchtime=1         " highlight match for 0.1 seconds
set background=dark     " black background
set shiftwidth=4        " shift blocks by 4 spaces
set shortmess=at        " use short messages so we don't have to hit enter
set expandtab           " expand tabs into spaces
set scrolloff=5         " always show 5 lines before & after cursor
set shell=bash          " use bash for the command shell
set shellcmdflag=-lc    " make bash startup as a login shell for ~/.bashrc
"set nowrap              " do not wrap long lines
set visualbell          " flash the screen rather than beep
set noerrorbells        " don't beep on errors
set wildmenu            " enable filename tab completion
set ruler               " display the ruler: shows cursor position
set cpoptions+=$        " display '$' at end of cw sequence
set title               " display filename and vim info in window title bar
set modelines=5         " search the first and last 5 lines for "vim:" modeline
set backspace=2         " backspace deletes


set wildignore=*.o,*.class,*.pyc,*.pyo,*.a,*.so,*.dll,*.exe,core,*.jar,*.zip

"let loaded_matchparen = 1 " don't highlight parenthesis match

filetype indent on

"if v:version > 700
"    set cursorline          " underline the current line
"endif

if &t_Co > 2 || has( "gui_running" )
    syntax on
endif

if has( 'mouse' )
    set mouse=a " enable mouse
endif

if has( "autocmd" )
    " open the file in the last place we were editing
    autocmd BufReadPost *
        \ if line("'\"") > 1 && line("'\"") <= line("$") |
        \     exe "normal! g'\"" |
        \ endif
endif

"folding settings
set foldmethod=indent   "fold based on indent
set foldnestmax=10      "deepest fold is 10 levels
set nofoldenable        "dont fold by default
set foldlevel=10        "this is just what i use


Python .vimrc:

" KENNETH SETTINGS
set nocp                " turn off compatibility mode
set nomodeline          " do not allow files to dictate vim behavior

set incsearch           " incremental search
set ignorecase          " ignore case during search

set visualbell          " flash the screen rather than beep
set noerrorbells        " don't beep on errors
set background=dark     " black background
syntax on               " turn on syntax highlighting
set hlsearch            " highligh last search pattern

set nowrap              " do not wrap long lines
set scrolloff=5         " always show 5 lines before & after cursor
set ruler               " show the cursor position all the time
set backspace=2         " allow backspace deletion
set bs=indent,eol,start " allow backspacing over everything in insert mode

set shiftwidth=4        " shift blocks in 4 space increments
set tabstop=4           " the (typewriter) tab stops are every 4 spaces
set expandtab           " expand tab into spaces
set smarttab            " tab at beginning of line inserts 4 spaces (shiftwidth)
filetype indent on      " turn on auto indent for specific file types

vimdiff

See vimdiff

keywords